This transcript of the Proposed
Constitution for the Newstates of America was transferred from Col. Arch
Roberts' website at
Committee to Restore the Constitution.
When possible, we transfer whole files — always giving credit to its
source — in the event a website with pertinent information may be
discontinued. — Jackie
A CONSTITUTION FOR THE NEWSTATES
OF AMERICA, from the book, THE EMERGING CONSTITUTION by Rexford G. Tugwell,
published 1974 (Harper & Row: $20.00) illustrates with chilling clarity
the final objective of regional governance conspirators. The goal is a corporate
state concentrating economic, political and social powers in the hands of
a ruling elite. "A Constitution for the Newstates of America", is the fortieth
version of this revolutionary document prepared by a team of social experimenters
at the CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS, Fund for the Republic
(Ford Foundation), Post Office Box 4068, Santa Barbara, California
The Center, its first objective
accomplished, has appointed socialist-oriented University of Denver Chancellor
Maurice B. Mitchell as its new head and may merge with the Aspen Institute
for Humanistic Studies, a Colorado-based world government policy promotion
Aspen Institute Chairman is Robert
O. Anderson, chief executive officer, Atlantic Richfield Company; member,
Committee for Economic Development (laid ground work for regional government),
and advisory board member, Institute for International Education. Anderson
is the principal figure in campaign aimed at seizing control of the National
the Newstates of America
So that we may join in common endeavors,
welcome the future in good order, and create an adequate and self-repairing
government - we, the people, do establish the Newstates of America, herein
provided to be ours, and do ordain this Constitution whose supreme law it
shall be until the time prescribed for it shall have run.
SECTION 1. Freedom of expression,
of communication, of movement, of assembly, or of petition shall not be abridged
except in declared emergency.
SECTION 2. Access to information
possessed by governmental agencies shall not be denied except in the interest
of national security; but communications among officials necessary to
decisionmaking shall be privileged.
SECTION 3. Public communicators
may decline to reveal sources of information, but shall be responsible for
SECTION 4. The privacy of
individuals shall be respected; searches and seizures shall be made only
on judicial warrant; persons shall be pursued or questioned only for the
prevention of crime or the apprehension of suspected criminals, and only
according to rules established under law.
SECTION 5. There shall be
no discrimination because of race, creed, color, origin, or sex. The Court
of Rights and Responsibilities may determine whether selection for various
occupations has been discriminatory.
SECTION 6. All persons shall
have equal protection of the laws, and in all electoral procedures the vote
of every eligible citizen shall count equally with others.
SECTION 7. It shall be public
policy to promote discussion of public issues and to encourage peaceful public
gatherings for this purpose. Permission to hold such gatherings shall not
be denied, nor shall they be interrupted, except in declared emergency or
on a showing of imminent danger to public order and on judicial warrant.
SECTION 8. The practice of
religion shall be privileged; but no religion shall be imposed by some on
others, and none shall have public support.
SECTION 9. Any citizen may
purchase, sell, lease, hold, convey, and inherit real and personal property,
and shall benefit equally from all laws for security in such
SECTION 10. Those who cannot
contribute to productivity shall be entitled to a share of the national product;
but distribution shall be fair and the total may not exceed the amount for
this purpose held in the National Sharing Fund.
SECTION 11. Education shall
be provided at public expense for those who meet appropriate tests of
SECTION 12. No person shall
be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. No
property shall be taken without compensation.
SECTION 13. Legislatures
shall define crimes and conditions requiring restraint, but confinement shall
not be for punishment; and, when possible, there shall be preparation for
return to freedom.
SECTION 14. No person shall
be placed twice in jeopardy for the same offense.
SECTION 15. Writs of habeas
corpus shall not be suspended except in declared emergency.
SECTION 16. Accused persons
shall be informed of charges against them, shall have a speedy trial, shall
have reasonable bail, shall be allowed to confront witnesses or to call others,
and shall not be compelled to testify against themselves; at the time of
arrest they shall be informed of their right to be silent and to have counsel,
provided, if necessary, at public expense; and courts shall consider the
contention that prosecution may be under an invalid or unjust statute.
SECTION 1. Each freedom of
the citizen shall prescribe a corresponding responsibility not to diminish
that of others: of speech, communication, assembly, and petition, to grant
the same freedom to others; of religion, to respect that of others; of privacy,
not to invade that of others; of the holding and disposal of property, the
obligation to extend the same privilege to others.
SECTION 2. Individuals and
enterprises holding themselves out to serve the public shall serve all equally
and without intention to misrepresent, conforming to such standards as may
improve health and welfare.
SECTION 3. Protection of
the law shall be repaid by assistance in its enforcement; this shall include
respect for the procedures of justice, apprehension of lawbreakers, and testimony
SECTION 4. Each citizen shall
participate in the processes of democracy, assisting in the selection of
officials and in the monitoring of their conduct in office.
SECTION 5. Each shall render
such services to the nation as may be uniformly required by law, objection
by reason of conscience being adjudicated as hereinafter provided; and none
shall expect or may receive special privileges unless they be for a public
purpose defined by law.
SECTION 6. Each shall pay
whatever share of governmental costs is consistent with fairness to all.
SECTION 7. Each shall refuse
awards or titles from other nations or their representatives except as they
be authorized by law.
SECTION 8. There shall be
a responsibility to avoid violence and to keep the peace; for this reason
the bearing of arms or the possession of lethal weapons shall be confined
to the police, members of the armed forces, and those licensed under
SECTION 9. Each shall assist
in preserving the endowments of nature and enlarging the inheritance of future
SECTION 10. Those granted
the use of public lands, the air, or waters shall have a responsibility for
using these resources so that, if irreplaceable, they are conserved and,
if replaceable, they are put back as they were.
SECTION 11. Retired officers
of the armed forces, of the senior civil service, and of the Senate shall
regard their service as a permanent obligation and shall not engage in enterprise
seeking profit from the government.
SECTION 12. The devising
or controlling of devices for management or technology shall establish
responsibility for resulting costs.
SECTION 13. All rights and
responsibilities defined herein shall extend to such associations of citizens
as may be authorized by law.
SECTION 1. There shall be
Newstates, each comprising no less than 5 percent of the whole population.
Existing states may continue and may have the status of Newstates if the
Boundary Commission, hereinafter provided, shall so decide. The Commission
shall be guided in its recommendations by the probability of accommodation
to the conditions for effective government. States electing by referendum
to continue if the Commission recommend otherwise shall nevertheless accept
all Newstate obligations.
SECTION 2. The Newstates
shall have constitutions formulated and adopted by processes hereinafter
SECTION 3. They shall have
Governors, legislatures, and planning, administrative, and judicial
SECTION 4. Their political
procedures shall be organized and supervised by electoral Overseers; but
their elections shall not be in years of presidential election.
SECTION 5. The electoral
apparatus of the Newstates of America shall be available to them, and they
may be allotted funds under rules agreed to by the national Overseer; but
expenditures may not be made by or for any candidate except they be approved
by the Overseer; and requirements of residence in a voting district shall
be no longer than thirty days.
SECTION 6. They may charter
subsidiary governments, urban or rural, and may delegate to them powers
appropriate to their responsibilities.
SECTION 7. They may lay,
or may delegate the laying of, taxes; but these shall conform to the restraints
stated hereinafter for the Newstates of America.
SECTION 8. They may not tax
exports, may not tax with intent to prevent imports, and may not impose any
tax forbidden by laws of the Newstates of America; but the objects appropriate
for taxation shall be clearly designated.
SECTION 9. Taxes on land
may be at higher rates than those on its improvements.
SECTION 10. They shall be
responsible for the administration of public services not reserved to the
government of the Newstates of America, such activities being concerted with
those of corresponding national agencies, where these exist, under arrangements
common to all.
SECTION 11. The rights and
responsibilities prescribed in this Constitution shall be effective in the
Newstates and shall be suspended only in emergency when declared by Governors
and not disapproved by the Senate of the Newstates of America.
SECTION 12. Police powers
of the Newstates shall extend to all matters not reserved to the Newstates
of America; but preempted powers shall not be impaired.
SECTION 13. Newstates may
not enter into any treaty, alliance, confederation, or agreement unless approved
by the Boundary Commission hereinafter provided.
not coin money, provide for the payment of debts in any but legal tender,
or make any charge for inter-Newstate services. They may not enact ex post
facto laws or ones impairing the obligation of contracts.
SECTION 14. Newstates may
not impose barriers to imports from other jurisdictions or impose any hindrance
to citizens' freedom of movement.
SECTION 15. If governments
of the Newstates fail to carry out fully their constitutional duties, their
officials shall be warned and may be required by the Senate, on the
recommendation of the Watchkeeper, to forfeit revenues from the Newstates
1. To arrange for participation by the electorate in the determination of
policies and the selection of officials, there shall be an Electoral
SECTION 2. An Overseer of
electoral procedures shall be chosen by majority of the Senate and may be
removed by a two-thirds vote. It shall be the Overseer's duty to supervise
the organization of national and district parties, arrange for discussion
among them, and provide for the nomination and election of candidates for
public office. While in office the Overseer shall belong to no political
organization; and after each presidential election shall offer to
SECTION 3. A national party
shall be one having had at least a 5 percent affiliation in the latest general
election; but a new party shall be recognized when valid petitions have been
signed by at least 2 percent of the voters in each of 30 percent of the districts
drawn for the House of Representatives. Recognition shall be suspended upon
failure to gain 5 percent of the votes at a second election, 10 percent at
a third, or 15 percent at further elections.
parties shall be recognized when at least 2 percent of the voters shall have
signed petitions of affiliation; but recognition shall be withdrawn upon
failure to attract the same percentages as are necessary for the continuance
of national parties.
SECTION 4. Recognition by
the Overseer shall bring parties within established regulations and entitle
them to common privileges.
SECTION 5. The Overseer shall
promulgate rules for party conduct and shall see that fair practices are
maintained, and for this purpose shall appoint deputies in each district
and shall supervise the choice, in district and national conventions, of
party administrators. Regulations and appointments may be objected to by
SECTION 6. The Overseer,
with the administrators and other officials, shall:
a. Provide the means for discussion, in each party, of public issues, and,
for this purpose, ensure that members have adequate facilities for
b. Arrange for discussion, in annual district meetings, of the President's
views, of the findings of the Planning Branch, and such other information
as may be pertinent for enlightened political discussion.
c. Arrange, on the first Saturday in each month, for enrollment, valid for
one year, of voters at convenient
SECTION 7. The Overseer shall
a. Assist the parties in nominating candidates for district members of the
House of Representatives each three years; and for this purpose designate
one hundred districts, each with a similar number of eligible voters, redrawing
districts after each election. In these there shall be party conventions
having no more than three hundred delegates, so distributed that representation
of voters be approximately equal.
Candidates for delegate may become eligible by presenting petitions signed
by two hundred registered voters. They shall be elected by party members
on the first Tuesday in March, those having the largest number of votes being
chosen until the three hundred be complete. Ten alternates shall also be
chosen by the same process.
District conventions shall be held on the first Tuesday in April. Delegates
shall choose three candidates for membership in the House of Representatives,
the three having the most votes becoming candidates.
b. Arrange for the election each three years of three members of the House
of Representatives in each district from among the candidates chosen in party
conventions, the three having the most votes to be elected.
SECTION 8. The Overseer shall
a. Arrange for national conventions to meet nine years after previous
presidential elections, with an equal number of delegates from each district,
the whole number not to exceed one thousand.
Candidates for delegates shall be eligible when petitions signed by five
hundred registered voters have been filed. Those with the most votes, together
with two alternates, being those next in number of votes, shall be chosen
in each district.
b. Approve procedures in these conventions for choosing one hundred candidates
to be members-at-large of the House of Representatives, whose terms shall
be coterminous with that of the President. For this purpose delegates shall
file one choice with convention officials. Voting on submissions shall proceed
until one hundred achieve 10 percent, but not more than three candidates
may be resident in any one district; if any district have more than three,
those with the fewest votes shall be eliminated, others being added from
the districts having less than three, until equality be reached. Of those
added, those having the most votes shall be chosen first.
c. Arrange procedures for the consideration and approval of party objectives
by the convention.
d. Formulate rules for the nomination in these conventions of candidates
for President and Vice-Presidents when the offices are to fall vacant, candidates
for nomination to be recognized when petitions shall have been presented
by one hundred or more delegates, pledged to continue support until candidates
can no longer win or until they consent to withdraw. Presidents and
Vice-Presidents, together with Representatives-at-large, shall submit to
referendum after serving for three years, and if they are rejected, new
conventions shall be held within one month and candidates shall be chosen
as for vacant offices.
Candidates for President and Vice-Presidents shall be nominated on attaining
e. Arrange for the election on the first Tuesday in June, in appropriate
years, of new candidates for President and Vice-Presidents, and members-at-large
of the House of Representatives, all being presented to the nation's voters
as a ticket; if no ticket achieve a majority, the Overseer shall arrange
another election, on the third Tuesday in June, between the two persons having
the most votes; and if referendum so determine he shall provide similar
arrangements for the nomination and election of candidates.
In this election, the one having the most votes shall prevail.
SECTION 9. The Overseer shall
a. Arrange for the convening of the national legislative houses on the fourth
Tuesday of July.
b. Arrange for inauguration of the President and Vice-Presidents on the second
Tuesday of August.
SECTION 10. All costs of
electoral procedures shall be paid from public funds, and there shall be
no private contributions to parties or candidates; no contributions or
expenditures for meetings, conventions, or campaigns shall be made; and no
candidate for office may make any personal expenditures unless authorized
by a uniform rule of the Overseer; and persons or groups making expenditures,
directly or indirectly, in support of prospective candidates shall report
to the Overseer and shall conform to his regulations.
SECTION 11. Expenses of the
Electoral Branch shall be met by the addition of one percent to the net annual
taxable income returns of taxpayers, this sum to be held by the Chancellor
of Financial Affairs for disposition by the Overseer.
be distributed to parties in proportion to the respective number of votes
cast for the President and Governors at the last election, except that new
parties, on being recognized, shall share in proportion to their number.
Party administrators shall make allocations to legislative candidates in
amounts proportional to the party vote at the last election.
shall be audited by the Watchkeeper; and sums not expended within four years
shall be returned to the Treasury.
be a condition of every communications franchise that reasonable facilities
shall be available for allocations by the Overseer.
SECTION 1. There shall be
a Planning Branch to formulate and administer plans and to prepare budgets
for the uses of expected income in pursuit of policies formulated by the
processes provided herein.
SECTION 2. There shall be
a National Planning Board of fifteen members appointed by the President;
the first members shall have terms designated by the President of one to
fifteen years, thereafter one shall be appointed each year; the President
shall appoint a Chairman who shall serve for fifteen years unless removed
SECTION 3. The Chairman shall
appoint, and shall supervise, a planning administrator, together with such
deputies as may be agreed to by the Board.
SECTION 4. The Chairman shall
present to the Board six- and twelve-year development plans prepared by the
planning staff. They shall be revised each year after public hearings, and
finally in the year before they are to take effect. They shall be submitted
to the President on the fourth Tuesday in July for transmission to the Senate
on September 1 with his comments.
of the Board fail to approve the budget proposals by the forwarding date,
the Chairman shall nevertheless make submission to the President with notations
of reservation by such members. The President shall transmit this proposal,
with his comments, to the House of Representatives on September 1.
SECTION 5. It shall be recognized
that the six-and twelve-year development plans represent national intentions
tempered by the appraisal of possibilities. The twelve-year plan shall be
a general estimate of probable progress, both governmental and private; the
six-year plan shall be more specific as to estimated income and expenditure
and shall take account of necessary revisions.
shall be to advance, through every agency of government, the excellence of
national life. It shall be the further purpose to anticipate innovations,
to estimate their impact, to assimilate them into existing institutions,
and to moderate deleterious effects on the environment and on society.
and twelve-year plans shall be disseminated for discussion and the opinions
expressed shall be considered in the formulation of plans for each succeeding
year with special attention to detail in proposing the budget.
SECTION 6. For both plans
an extension of one year into the future shall be made each year and the
estimates for all other years shall be revised accordingly. For nongovernmental
activities the estimate of developments shall be calculated to indicate the
need for enlargement or restriction.
SECTION 7. If there be objection
by the President or the Senate to the six- or twelve-year plans, they shall
be returned for restudy and resubmission. If there still be differences,
and if the President and the Senate agree, they shall prevail. If they do
not agree, the Senate shall prevail and the plan shall be revised
SECTION 8. The Newstates,
on June 1, shall submit proposals for development to be considered for inclusion
in those for the Newstates of America. Researches and administration shall
be delegated, when convenient, to planning agencies of the Newstates.
SECTION 9. There shall be
submissions from private individuals or from organized associations affected
with a public interest, as defined by the Board. They shall report intentions
to expand or contract, estimates of production and demand, probable uses
of resources, numbers expected to be employed, and other essential
SECTION 10. The Planning
Branch shall make and have custody of official maps, and these shall be documents
of reference for future developments both public and private; on them the
location of facilities, with extension indicated, and the intended use of
all areas shall be marked out.
maps shall also be maintained by the planning agencies of the Newstates,
and in matters not exclusively national the National Planning Board may rely
in violation of official designation shall be at the risk of the venturer,
and there shall be no recourse; but losses from designations after acquisition
shall be recoverable in actions before the Court of Claims.
SECTION 11. The Planning
Branch shall have available to it funds equal to one-half of one percent
of the approved national budget (not including debt services or payments
from trust funds). They shall be held by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs
and expended according to rules approved by the Board; but funds not expended
within six years shall be available for other uses.
SECTION 12. Allocations may
be made for the planning agencies of the Newstates; but only the maps and
plans of the national Board, or those approved by them, shall have status
SECTION 13. In making plans,
there shall be due regard to the interests of other nations and such cooperation
with their intentions as may be approved by the Board.
SECTION 14. There may also
be cooperation with international agencies and such contributions to their
work as are not disapproved by the President.
SECTION 1. The President
of the Newstates of America shall be the head of government, shaper of its
commitments, expositor of its policies, and supreme commander of its protective
forces; shall have one term of nine years, unless rejected by 60 percent
of the electorate after three years; shall take care that the nation's resources
are estimated and are apportioned to its more exigent needs; shall recommend
such plans, legislation, and action as may be necessary; and shall address
the legislators each year on the state of the nation, calling upon them to
do their part for the general good.
SECTION 2. There shall be
two Vice-Presidents elected with the President; at the time of taking office
the President shall designate one Vice-President to supervise internal affairs;
and one to be deputy for general affairs. The deputy for general affairs
shall succeed if the presidency be vacated; the Vice-President for internal
affairs shall be second in succession. If either Vice-President shall die
or be incapacitated, the President, with the consent of the Senate, shall
appoint a successor. Vice-Presidents shall serve during an extended term
with such assignments as the President may make.
presidency fall vacant through the disability of both Vice-Presidents, the
Senate shall elect successors from among its members to serve until the next
Vice-Presidents and other officials the President shall see to it that the
laws are faithfully executed and shall pay attention to the findings and
recommendations of the Planning Board, the National Regulatory Board, and
the Watchkeeper in formulating national policies.
SECTION 3. Responsible to
the Vice-President for General Affairs there shall be Chancellors of External,
Financial, Legal, and Military Affairs.
of External Affairs shall assist in conducting relations with other
of Financial Affairs shall supervise the nation's financial and monetary
systems, regulating its capital markets and credit-issuing institutions as
they may be established by law; and this shall include lending institutions
for operations in other nations or in cooperation with them, except that
treaties may determine their purposes and standards.
of Legal Affairs shall advise governmental agencies and represent them before
of Military Affairs shall act for the presidency in disposing all armed forces
except militia commanded by governors; but these shall be available for national
service at the President's convenience.
in declared emergency, the deployment of forces in far waters or in other
nations without their consent shall be notified in advance to a national
security committee of the Senate hereinafter provided.
SECTION 4. Responsible to
the Vice-President for Internal Affairs there shall be chancellors of such
departments as the President may find necessary for performing the services
of government and are not rejected by a two-thirds vote when the succeeding
budget is considered.
SECTION 5. Candidates for
the presidency and the vice-presidencies shall be natural-born citizens.
Their suitability may be questioned by the Senate within ten days of their
nomination, and if two-thirds of the whole agree, they shall be ineligible
and a nominating convention shall be reconvened. At the time of his nomination
no candidate shall be a member of the Senate and none shall be on active
service in the armed forces or a senior civil servant.
SECTION 6. The President
may take leave because of illness or for an interval of relief, and the
Vice-President in charge of General Affairs shall act. The President may
resign if the Senate agree; and, if the term shall have more than two years
to run, the Overseer shall arrange for a special election for President and
SECTION 7. The Vice-Presidents
may be directed to perform such ministerial duties as the President may find
convenient; but their instructions shall be of record, and their actions
shall be taken as his deputy.
SECTION 8. Incapacitation
may be established without concurrence of the President by a three-quarters
vote of the Senate, whereupon a successor shall become Acting President until
the disability be declared, by a similar vote, to be ended or to have become
permanent. Similarly the other Vice-President shall succeed if a predecessor
die or be disabled. Special elections, in these contingencies, may be required
by the Senate.
Presidents may appoint deputies, unless the Senate object, to assume their
duties until the next election.
SECTION 9. The Vice-Presidents,
together with such other officials as the President may designate from time
to time, may constitute a cabinet or council; but this shall not include
officials of other branches.
SECTION 10. Treaties or
agreements with other nations, negotiated under the President's authority,
shall be in effect unless objected to by a majority of the Senate within
ninety days. If they are objected to, the President may resubmit and the
Senate reconsider. If a majority still object, the Senate shall prevail.
SECTION 11. All officers,
except those of other branches, shall be appointed and may be removed by
the President. A majority of the Senate may object to appointments within
sixty days, and alternative candidates shall be offered until it agrees.
SECTION 12. The President
shall notify the Planning Board and the House of Representatives, on the
fourth Tuesday in June, what the maximum allowable expenditures for the ensuing
fiscal year shall be.
may determine to make expenditures less than provided in appropriations;
but, except in declared emergency, none shall be made in excess of
appropriations. Reduction shall be because of changes in requirements and
shall not be such as to impair the integrity of budgetary procedures.
SECTION 13. There shall be
a Public Custodian, appointed by the President and removable by him, who
shall have charge of properties belonging to the government, but not allocated
to specific agencies, who shall administer common public services, shall
have charge of building construction and rentals, and shall have such other
duties as may be designated by the President or the designated
SECTION 14. There shall be
an Intendant responsible to the President who shall supervise Offices for
Intelligence and Investigation; also an Office of Emergency Organization
with the duty of providing plans and procedures for such contingencies as
can be anticipated.
shall also charter nonprofit corporations (or foundations), unless the President
shall object, determined by him to be for useful public purposes. Such
corporations shall be exempt from taxation but shall conduct no profitmaking
SECTION 15. The Intendant
shall also be a counselor for the coordination of scientific and cultural
experiments, and for studies within the government and elsewhere, and for
this purpose shall employ such assistance as may be found necessary.
SECTION 16. Offices for other
purposes may be established and may be discontinued by presidential order
within the funds allocated in the procedures of appropriation.
(The Senate and the House of
A. The Senate
SECTION 1. There shall be
a Senate with membership as follows: If they so desire, former Presidents,
Vice-Presidents, Principal Justices, Overseers, Chairmen of the Planning
and Regulatory Boards, Governors having had more than seven years' service,
and unsuccessful candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency who have
received at least 30 percent of the vote. To be appointed by the President,
three persons who have been Chancellors, two officials from the civil services,
two officials from the diplomatic services, two senior military officers,
also one person from a panel of three, elected in a process approved by the
Overseer, by each of twelve such groups or associations as the President
may recognize from time to time to be nationally representative, but none
shall be a political or religious group, no individual selected shall have
been paid by any private interest to influence government, and any association
objected to by the Senate shall not be recognized. Similarly, to be appointed
by the Principal Justice, two persons distinguished in public law and two
former members of the High Courts or the Judicial Council. Also, to be elected
by the House of Representatives, three members who have served six or more
shall be filled as they occur.
SECTION 2. Membership shall
continue for life, except that absences not provided for by rule shall constitute
retirement, and that Senators may retire voluntarily.
SECTION 3. The Senate shall
elect as presiding officer a Convener who shall serve for two years, when
his further service may be discontinued by a majority vote. Other officers,
including a Deputy, shall be appointed by the Convener unless the Senate
SECTION 4. The Senate shall
meet each year on the second Tuesday in July and shall be in continuous session,
but may adjourn to the call of the Convener. A quorum shall be more than
three-fifths of the whole membership.
SECTION 5. The Senate shall
consider, and return within thirty days, all measures approved by the House
of Representatives (except the annual budget). Approval or disapproval shall
be by a majority vote of those present. Objection shall stand unless the
House of Representatives shall overcome it by a majority vote plus one; if
no return be made, approval by the House of Representatives shall be
consideration of laws passed by the House of Representatives or for other
purposes, the Convener may appoint appropriate committees.
SECTION 6. The Senate may
ask advice from the Principal Justice concerning the constitutionality of
measures before it; and if this be done, the time for return to the House
of Representatives may extend to ninety days.
SECTION 7. If requested,
the Senate may advise the President on matters of public interest; or, if
not requested, by resolution approved by two-thirds of those present. There
shall be a special duty to note expressions of concern during party conventions
and commitments made during campaigns; and if these be neglected, to remind
the President and the House of Representatives that these undertakings are
to be considered.
SECTION 8. In time of present
or prospective danger caused by cataclysm, by attack, or by insurrection,
the Senate may declare a national emergency and may authorize the President
to take appropriate action. If the Senate be dispersed, and no quorum available,
the President may proclaim the emergency, and may terminate it unless the
Senate shall have acted. If the President be not available, and the circumstances
extreme, the senior serving member of the presidential succession may act
until a quorum assembles.
SECTION 9. The Senate may
also define and declare a limited emergency in time of prospective danger,
or of local or regional disaster, or if an extraordinary advantage be
anticipated. It shall be considered by the House of Representatives within
three days and, unless disapproved, may extend for a designated period and
for a limited area before renewal.
expenditures during emergency may be approved, without regard to usual budget
procedures, by the House of Representatives with the concurrence of the
SECTION 10. The Senate, at
the beginning of each session, shall select three of its members to constitute
a National Security Committee to be consulted by the President in emergencies
requiring the deployment of the armed forces abroad. If the Committee dissent
from the President's proposal, it shall report to the Senate, whose decision
shall be final.
SECTION 11. The Senate shall
elect, or may remove, a National Watchkeeper, and shall oversee, through
a standing committee, a Watchkeeping Service conducted according to rules
formulated for their approval.
assistance of an appropriate staff the Watchkeeper shall gather and organize
information concerning the adequacy, competence, and integrity of governmental
agencies and their personnel, as well as their continued usefulness; and
shall also suggest the need for new or expanded services, making report
concerning any agency of the deleterious effect of its activities on citizens
or on the environment.
shall entertain petitions for the redress of grievances and shall advise
the appropriate agencies if there be need for action.
these purposes, personnel may be appointed, investigations made, witnesses
examined, postaudits made, and information required.
shall present the Watchkeeper's findings to the Senate, and if it be judged
to be in the public interest, they shall be made public or, without being
made public, be sent to the appropriate agency for its guidance and such
action as may be needed. On recommendation of the Watchkeeper the Senate
may initiate corrective measures to be voted on by the House of Representatives
within thirty days. When approved by a majority and not vetoed by the President,
they shall become law.
Watchkeeping Service one-quarter of one percent of individual net taxable
incomes shall be held by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs; but amounts
not expended in any fiscal year shall be available for general use.
B. The House of Representatives
SECTION 1. The House of
Representatives shall be the original lawmaking body of the Newstates of
SECTION 2. It shall convene
each year on the second Tuesday in July and shall remain in continuous session
except that it may adjourn to the call of a Speaker, elected by majority
vote from among the Representatives-at-large, who shall be its presiding
SECTION 3. It shall be a
duty to implement the provisions of this constitution and, in legislating,
to be guided by them.
SECTION 4. Party leaders
and their deputies shall be chosen by caucus at the beginning of each
SECTION 5. Standing and temporary
committees shall be selected as follows:
dealing with the calendaring and management of bills shall have a majority
of members nominated to party caucuses by the Speaker; other members shall
be nominated by minority leaders. Membership shall correspond to the parties'
proportions at the last election. If nominations be not approved by a majority
of the caucus, the Speaker or the minority leaders shall nominate others
until a majority shall approve.
of other committees shall be chosen by party caucus in proportion to the
results of the last election. Chairmen shall be elected annually from among
to committees shall be returned to the house with recommendations within
sixty days unless extension be voted by the House.
committee actions names of those voting for and against shall be
chairman may serve longer than six years.
SECTION 6. Approved legislation,
not objected to by the Senate within the alloted time, shall be presented
to the President for his approval or disapproval. If the President disapprove,
and three-quarters of the House membership still approve, it shall become
law. The names of those voting for and against shall be recorded. Bills not
returned within eleven days shall become law.
SECTION 7. The President
may have thirty days to consider measures approved by the House unless they
shall have been submitted twelve days previous to adjournment.
SECTION 8. The House shall
consider promptly the annual budget; if there be objection, it shall be notified
to the Planning Board; the Board shall then resubmit through the President;
and, with his comments, it shall be returned to the House. If there still
be objection by a two-thirds majority, the House shall prevail. Objection
must be by whole title; titles not objected to when voted on shall constitute
for the fiscal year shall be in effect on January 1. Titles not yet acted
on shall be as in the former budget until action be completed.
SECTION 9. It shall be the
duty of the House to make laws concerning taxes.
their laying and collection:
a. They shall be uniform, and shall not be retroactive.
b. Except such as may be authorized by law to be laid by Authorities, or
by the Newstates, all collections shall be made by a national revenue agency.
This shall include collections for trust funds hereinafter authorized.
c. Except for corporate levies to be held in the National Sharing Fund,
hereinafter authorized, taxes may be collected only from individuals and
only from incomes; but there may be withholding from current incomes.
d. To assist in the maintenance of economic stability, the President may
be authorized to alter rates by executive order.
e. They shall be imposed on profitmaking enterprises owned or conducted by
religious establishments or other nonprofit organizations.
f. There shall be none on food, medicines, residential rentals, or commodities
or services designated by law as necessities; and there shall be no double
g. None shall be levied for registering ownership or transfer of
expenditures from revenues:
a. For the purposes detailed in the annual budget unless objection be made
by the procedure prescribed herein.
b. For such other purposes as the House may indicate and require the Planning
Branch to include in revisions of the budget; but, except in declared emergency,
the total may not exceed the President's estimate of available funds.
fixing the percentage of net corporate taxable incomes to be paid into a
National Sharing Fund to be held in the custody of the Chancellor of Financial
Affairs and made available for such welfare and environmental purposes as
are authorized by law.
4. To provide
for the regulation of commerce with other nations and among the Newstates,
Possessions, Territories; or, as shall be mutually agreed, with other organized
governments; but exports shall not be taxed; and imports shall not be taxed
except on recommendation of the President at rates whose allowable variation
shall have been fixed bylaw. There shall be no quotas, and no nations favored
by special rates, unless by special acts requiring two-thirds
establish, or provide for the establishment of, institutuions for the safekeeping
of savings, for the gathering and distribution of capital, for the issuance
of credit, for regulating the coinage of money, for controlling them edia
of exchange, and for stabilizing prices; but such institutions, when not
public or semipublic, shall be regarded as affected with the public interest
and shall be supervised by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs.
6. To establish
institutions for insurance against risks and liabilities, or to provide suitable
agencies for the regulation of such as are not public.
7. To ensure
the maintenance, by ownership or regulation, of facilities for communication,
transportation, and others commonly used and necessary for public
8. To assist
in the maintenance of world order, and, for this purpose, when the President
shall recommend, to vest jurisdiction in international legislative, judicial,
or administrative agencies.
9. To develop
with other peoples, and for the benefit of all, the resources of space, of
other bodies in the universe, and of the seas beyond twelve miles from low-water
shores unless treaties shall provide other limits.
assist other peoples who have not attained satisfactory levels of well-being;
to delegate the administration of funds for assistance, whenever possible,
to international agencies; and to invest in or contribute to the furthering
of development in other parts of the world.
assure, or to assist in assuring, adequate and equal facilities for education;
for training in occupations citizens may be fitted to pursue; and to reeducate
or retrain those whose occupations may become obsolete.
establish or to assist institutions devoted to higher education, to research,
or to technical training.
establish and maintain, or assist in maintaining, libraries, archives, monuments,
and other places of historic interest.
assist in the advancement of sciences and technologies; and to encourage
conserve natural resources by purchase, by withdrawal from use, or by regulation;
to provide, or to assist in providing, facilities for recreation; to establish
and maintain parks, forests, wilderness areas, wetlands, and prairies; to
improve streams and other waters; to ensure the purity of air and water;
to control the erosion of soils; and to provide for all else necessary for
the protection and common use of the national heritage.
acquire property and improvements for public use at costs to be fixed, if
necessary, by the Court of Claims.
prevent the stoppage or hindrance of governmental procedures, or of other
activities affected with a public interest as defined by law, by reason of
disputes between employers and employees, or for other reasons, and for this
purpose to provide for conclusive arbitration if adquate provision for collective
bargaining fail. From such finding there may be appeal to the Court of
Arbitration Review; but such proceedings may not stay the acceptance of
support an adequate civil service for the performance of such duties as may
be designated by administrators; and for this purpose to refrain from
interference with the processes of appointment or placement, asking advice
or testimony before committees only with the consent of appropriate
provide for the maintenance of armed forces.
enact such measures as will assist families in making adjustment to future
conditions, using estimates concerning population and resources made by the
vote within ninety days on such measures as the President may designate as
SECTION 1. There shall be
a Regulatory Branch, and there shall be a National Regulator chosen by majority
vote of the Senate and remoable by a two-thirds vote of that body. His term
shall be seven years, and he shall preside over a National Regulatory Board.
Together they shall make and administer rules for the conduct of all economic
Branch shall have such agencies as the Board may find necessary and are not
disapproved by law.
SECTION 2. The Regulatory
Board shall consist of seventeen members recommended to the Senate by the
Regulator. Unless rejected by majority vote they shall act with the Regulator
as a lawmaking body for industry.
initially have terms of one or seventeen years, one being replaced each year
and serving for seventeen years. They shall be compensated and shall have
no other occupation.
SECTION 3. Under procedures
approved by the board, the Regulator shall charter all corporations or
enterprises except those exempted because of sixe or other characteristics,
or those supervised by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs, or by the Intendant,
or those whose activities are confined to one Newstate.
shall describe proposed activities, and departure from these shall require
amendment on penalty of revocation. For this purpose there shall be investigation
and enforcement services under the direction of the Regulator.
SECTION 4. Chartered enterprises
in similar industries or occupations may organize joint Authorities. These
may formulate among themselves codes to ensure fair competition, meet external
costs, set standards for quality and service, expand trade, increase production,
eliminate waste, and assist in standardization. Authorities may maintain
for common use services for research and communcation; but membership shall
be open to all eligible enterprises. Nonmembers shall be required to maintain
the same standards at those prescribed for members.
SECTION 5. Authorities shall
have governing committees of five, two being appointed by the Regulator to
represent the public. they shall serve as he may determine; they shall be
compensated; and he shall take care that there be no conflicts of interest.
The Board may approve or prescribe rules for the distribution of profits
to stockholders, allowable amounts of working capital, and reserves. Costing
and all other practices affecting the public interest shall be
shall be subject to review by the Regulator with his Board.
SECTION 6. Member enterprises
of an Authority shall be exempt from other regulation.
SECTION 7. The Regulator,
with his Board, shall fix standards and procedures for mergers of enterprises
or the acquisition of some by others; and these shall be in effect unless
rejected by the Court of Administrative Settlements. The purpose shall be
to encourage adaptation to change and to further approved intentions for
SECTION 8. The charters of
enterprises may be revoked and Authorities may be dissolved by the Regulator,
with the concurrence of the Board, if they restrict the production of goods
and services, or controls of their prices; also if external costs are not
assessed to their originators or if the ecological impacts of their operations
SECTION 9. Operations extending
abroad shall conform to policies notified to the Regulator by the President;
and he shall restrict or control such activities as appear to injure the
SECTION 10. The Regulator
shall make rules for and shall supervise marketplaces for goods and services;
but this shall not include security exchanges regulated by the Chancellor
of Financial Affairs.
SECTION 11. Designation of
enterprises affected with a public interest, rules for conduct of enterprises
and of their Authorities, and other actions of the Regulator or of the Board
may be appealed to the Court of Administrative Settlements, whose judgments
shall be informed by the intention to establish fairness to consumer and
competitors and stability in economic affairs.
SECTION 12. Responsible also
to the Regulator, there shall be an Operations Commission appointed by the
Regulator, unless the Senate object, for the supervision of enterprises owned
in whole or in part by government. The commission shall choose its chairman,
and he shall be the executive head of a supervisory staff. He may require
reports, conduct investigations, and make rules and recommendations concerning
surpluses or deficits, the absorption of external costs, standards of service,
and rates or oprices charged for services or goods.
shall have a director, chosen and removable by the Commission; and he shall
conduct its affairs in accordance with standards fixed by the
SECTION 1. There shall be
a Principal Justice of the Newstates of America; a Judicial Council; and
a Judicial Assembly. There shall also be a Supreme Court and a High Court
of Appeals; also Courts of Claims, Rights and Duties, Administrative Review,
Arbitration Settlements, Tax Appeals, and Appeals from Watchkeeper's Findings.
There shall be Circuit Courts to be of first resort in suits brought under
national law; and they shall hear appeals from courts of the Newstates.
Other courts may be established
by law on recommendation of the Principal Justice with the Judicial
SECTION 2. The Principal Justice
shall preside over the judicial system, shall appoint the members of all
national courts, and, unless the Judicial Council object, shall make its
rules; also, through an Administrator, supervise its operations.
SECTION 3. The Judicial Assembly
shall consist of Circuit Court Judges, together with those of the High Courts
of the Newstates of America and those of the highest courts of the Newstates.
It shall meet annually, or at the call of the Principal Justice, to consider
the state of the Judiciary and such other matters as may be laid before
also meet at the call of the Convener to nominate three candidates for the
Principal Justiceship whenever a vacancy shall occur. From these nominees
the Senate shall choose the one having the most votes.
SECTION 4. The Principal
Justice, unless the Senate object to any, shall appoint a Judicial Council
of five members to serve during his incumbency. He shall designate a senior
member who shall preside in his absence.
be the duty of the Council, under the direction of the Principal Justice,
to study the courts in operation, to prepare codes of ethics to be observed
by members, and to suggest changes in procedure. The Council may ask the
advice of the Judicial Assembly.
also be a duty of the Council, as hereinafter provided, to suggest constitutional
amendments when they appear to be necessary; and it shall also draft revisions
if they shall be required. Further, it shall examine, and from time to time
cause to be revised, civil and criminal codes; these, when approved by the
Judicial Assembly, shall be in effect throughout the nation.
SECTION 5. The Principal
Justice shall have a term of eleven years; but if at any time the incumbent
resign to be disabled from continuing in office, as may be determined by
the Senate, replacement shall be by the senior member of the Judicial Council
until a new selection be made. After six years the Assembly may provide,
by a two-thirds vote, for discontinuance in office, and a successor shall
then be chosen.
SECTION 6. The Principal
Justice may suspend members of any court for incapacity or violation of rules;
and the separation shall be final if a majority of the Council agree.
court the Principal Justice shall, from time to time, appoint a member sho
SECTION 7. A presiding judge
may decide, with the concurrence of the senior judge, that there may be pretrial
proceedings, that criminal trials shall be conducted by either investigatory
or adversary proceedings, and whether there shall be a jury and what the
number of jurors shall be; but investigatory proceedings shall require a
bench of three.
SECTION 8. In deciding on
the concordance of statutes with the Constitution, the Supreme Court shall
return to the House of Representatives such as it cannot construe. If the
House fail to make return within ninety days the Court may interpret.
SECTION 9. The Principal
Justice, or the President, may grant pardons or reprieves.
SECTION 10. The High Courts
shall have thirteen members; but nine members, chosen by their senior justices
from time to time, shall constitute a court. The justices on leave shall
be subject to recall.
shall have nine members; but seven, chosen by their seniors, shall constitute
be in continuous session except for recesses approved by the Principal
SECTION 11. The Principal
Justice, with the Council, may advise the Senate, when requested, concerning
the appropriateness of measures approved by the House of Representatives;
and may also advise the President, when requested, on matters he may refer
SECTION 12. It shall be for
other branches to accept and to enforce judicial decrees.
SECTION 13. The High Court
of Appeals may select applications for further consideration by the Supreme
Court, of decisions reached by other courts, including those of the Newstates.
If it agree that there be a constitutional issue it may make preliminary
judgment to be reviewed without hearing, and finally, by the Supreme
SECTION 14. The Supreme Court
a. Whether, in litigation coming to it on appeal, constitutional provisions
have been violated or standards have not been met.
b. On the application of constitutional provisions to suits involving the
c. Whether international law, as recognized in treaties, United Nations
agreements, or arranagements with other nations, has been ignored or
d. Other causes involving the interpretation of constitutional provisions;
except that in holding any branch to have exceeded its powers the decision
shall be suspended until the Judicial Council shall have determined whether,
in order to avoid confrontation, procedures for amendment of the Constitution
If amendatory proceedings are instituted, decision shall await the
SECTION 15. The Courts of
the Newstates shall have initial jurisdiction in cases arising under their
laws except those involving the Newstate itself or those reserved for national
courts by a rule of the Principal Justice with the Judicial Council.
SECTION 1. Qualifications
for participation in democratic procedures as a citizen, and eligibility
for office, shall be subject to repeated study and redefinition; but any
change in qualification or eligibility shall become effective only if not
disapproved by the Congress.
purpose a permanent Citizenship and Qualifications Commission shall be
constituted, four members to be appointed by the President, three by the
Convener of the Senate, three by the Speaker of the House, and three by the
Principal Justice. Vacancies shall be filled as they occur. The members shall
choose a chairman; they shall have suitable assistants and accommodations;
and they may have other occupations. Recommendations of the commission shall
be presented to the President and shall be transmitted to the House of
Representatives with comments. They shall have a preferred place on the calendar
and, if approved, shall be in effect.
SECTION 2. Areas necessary
for the uses of government may be acquired at its valuation and may be maintained
as the public interest may require. Such areas shall have self-government
in matters of local concern.
SECTION 3. The President
may negotiate for the acquisition of areas outside the Newstates of America,
and, if the Senate approve, may provide for their organization as Possessions
SECTION 4. The President
may make agreements with other organized peoples for a relation other than
full membership in the Newstates of America. They may become citizens and
may participate in the selection of officials. They may receive assistance
for their development or from the National Sharing Fund if they conform to
its requirements; and they may serve in civilian or military services, but
only as volunteers. They shall be represented in the House of Representatives
by members elected at large, their number proportional to their constituencies;
but each shall have at least one; and each shall in the same way choose one
permanent member of the Senate.
SECTION 5. The President,
the Vice-Presidents, and members of the legislative houses shall in all cases
except treason, felony, and breach of the peace by exempt from penalty for
anything they may say while pursuing public duties; but the Judicial Council
may make restraining rules.
SECTION 6. Except as otherwise
provided by this Constitution, each legislative house shall establish its
requirements for membership and may make rules for the conduct of members,
including conflicts of interest, providing its own disciplines for their
SECTION 7. No Newstate shall
interfere with officials of the Newstates of America in the performance of
their duties, and all shall give full faith and credit to the Acts of other
Newstates and of the Newstates of America.
SECTION 8. Public funds shall
be expended only as authorized in this Constitution.
SECTION 1. Officers of the
Newstates of America shall be those named in this Constitution, including
those of the legislative houses and others authorized by law to be appointed;
they shall be compensated, and none may have other paid occupation unless
they be excepted by law; none shall occupy more than one position in government;
and no gift or favor shall be accepted if in any way related to official
from former employments or associations shall continue for their benefits;
but their properties may be put in trust and managed without their intervention
during continuance in office. Hardships under this rule may be considered
by the Court of Rights and Duties, and exceptions may be made with due regard
to the general intention.
SECTION 2. The President,
the Vice-Presidents, and the Principal Justice shall have households appropriate
to their duties. The President, the Vice-President, the Principal Justice,
the Chairman of the Planning Board, the Regulator, the Watchkeeper, and the
Overseer shall have salaries fixed by law and continued for life; but if
they become members of the Senate, they shall have senatorial compensation
and shall conform to senatorial requirements.
of the High Courts shall have no term; and their salaries shall be two-thirds
that of the Principal Justice; they, and members of the Judicial Council,
unless they shall have become Senators, shall be permanent members of the
Judiciary and shall be available for assignment by the Principal
for members of the Senate shall be the same as for Justices of the High Court
SECTION 3. Unless otherwise
provided herein, officials designated by the head of a branch as sharers
in policymaking may be appointed by him with the President's concurrence
and unless the Senate shall object.
SECTION 4. There shall be
a. for executive offices and official households, appointed by authority
of the President;
b. for the national courts, appointed by the Principal Justice;
for the Legislative Branch, selected by a committee of members from each
house (chosen by the Convener and the Speaker), three from the House of
Representatives and four from the Senate.
Appropriations shall be made to them; but those for the Presidency shall
not be reduced during his term unless with his consent; and those for the
Judicial Branch shall not be reduced during five years succeeding their
determination, unless with the consent of the Principal Justice.
SECTION 5. The fiscal year
shall be the same as the calendar year, with new appropriations available
at its beginning.
SECTION 6. There shall be
an Officials' Protective Service to guard the President, the Vice-Presidents,
the Principal Justice, and other officials whose safety may be at hazard;
and there shall be a Protector appointed by and responsible to a standing
committee of the Senate. Protected officials shall be guided by procedures
approved by the committee.
at the request of the Political Overseer, may extend its protection to candidates
for office; or to other officials, if the committee so decide.
SECTION 7. A suitable contingency
fund shall be made available to the President for purposes defined by
SECTION 8. The Senate shall
try officers of government other than legislators when such officers are
impeached by a two-third vote of the House of Representatives for conduct
prejudicial to the public interest. If Presidents or Vice-Presidents are
to be tried, the Senate, as constituted, shall conduct the trial. Judgments
shall not extend beyond removal from office and disqualification for holding
further office; but the convicted official shall be liable to further
SECTION 9. Members of legislative
houses may be impeached by the Judicial Council; but for trials it shall
be enlarged to seventeen by Justices of the High Courts appointed by the
Principal Justice. If convicted, members shall be expelled and be ineligible
for future public office; and they shall also be liable for trial as
1. It being the special duty of the Judicial Council to formulate and suggest
amendments to this Constitution, it shall, from time to time, make proposals,
through the Principal Justice, to the Senate. The Senate, if it approve,
and if the President agree, shall instruct the Overseer to arrange at the
next national election for submission of the amendment to the electorate.
If not disapproved by a majority, it shall become part of this Constitution.
If rejected, it may be restudied and a new proposal submitted.
be the purpose of the amending procedure to correct deficiencies in the
Constitution, to extend it when new responsibilities require, and to make
government responsible to needs of the people, making use of advances in
managerial competence and establishing security and stability; also to preclude
changes in the Constitution resulting from interpretation.
SECTION 2. When this Constitution
shall have been in effect for twenty-five years the Overseer shall ask, by
referendum, whether a new Constitution shall be prepared. If a majority so
decide, the Council, making use of such advice as may be available, and
consulting those who have made complaint, shall prepare a new draft for
submission at the next election. If not disapproved by a majority it shall
be in effect. If disapproved it shall be redrafted and resubmitted with such
changes as may be then appropriate to the circumstances, and it shall be
submitted to the voters at the following election.
disapproved by a majority it shall be in effect. If disapproved it shall
be restudied and resubmitted.
SECTION 1. The President
is authorized to assume such powers, make such appointments, and use such
funds as are necessary to make this Constitution effective as soon as possible
after acceptance by a referendum he may initiate.
SECTION 2. Such members of
the Senate as may be at once available shall convene and, if at least half,
shall constitute sufficient membership while others are being added. They
shall appoint an Overseer to arrange for electoral organization and elections
for the offices of government; but the President and Vice-Presidents shall
serve out their terms and then become members of the Senate. At that time
the presidency shall be constituted as provided in this Constitution.
SECTION 3. Until each indicated
change in the government shall have been completed the provisions of the
existing Constitution and the organs of government shall be in effect.
SECTION 4. All operations
of the national government shall cease as they are replaced by those authorized
under this Constitution.
shall determine when replacement is complete.
shall cause to be constituted an appropriate commission to designate existing
laws inconsistent with this Constitution, and they shall be void; also the
commission shall assist the President and the legislative houses in the
formulating of such laws as may be consistent with the Constitution and necessary
to its implementation.
SECTION 5. For establishing
Newstates boundaries a commission of thirteen, appointed by the President,
shall make recommendations within one year. For this purpose the members
may take advice and commission studies concerning resources, population,
transportation, communication, economic and social arranagements, and such
other conditions as may be significant. The President shall transmit the
commission's report to the Senate. After entertaining, if convenient, petitions
for revision, the Senate shall report whether the recommendations are
satisfactory but the President shall decide whether they shall be accepted
or shall be returned for revision.
states shall not be divided unless metropolitan areas extending over more
than one state are to be included in one Newstate, or unless other compelling
circumstances exist; and each Newstate shall possess harmonious regional
shall continue while the Newstates make adjustments among themselves and
shall have jurisdiction in disputes arising among them.
SECTION 6. Constitution of
the Newstates shall be established as arranged by the Judicial Council and
the Principal Justice.
procedures shall be as follows: Constitutions shall be drafted by the highest
courts of the Newstates. There shall then be a convention of one hundred
delegates chosen in special elections in a procedure approved by the Overseer.
If the Constitution be not rejected it shall be in effect and the government
shall be constituted. If it be rejected, the Principal Justice, advised by
the Judicial Council, shall promulgate a Constitution and initiate revisions
to be submitted for approval at a time he shall appoint. If it again be rejected
he shall promulgate another, taking account of objections, and it shall be
in effect. A Constitution, once in effect, shall be valid for twenty-five
years as herein provided.
SECTION 7. Until Governors
and legislatures of the Newstates are seated, their governments shall continue,
except that the President may appoint temporary Governors to act as executives
until suceeded by those regularly elected. These Governors shall succeed
to the executive functions of the states as they become one of the Newstates
SECTION 8. The indicated
appointments, elections, and other arrangements shall be made with all deliberate
SECTIONN 9. The first Judicial
Assembly for selecting a register of candidates for the Principal Justiceship
of the Newstates of America shall be called by the incumbent Chief Justice
immediately upon ratification.
SECTION 10. Newstates electing
by referendum not to comply with recommendations of the Boundary Commission,
as approved by the Senate, shall have deducted from taxes collected by the
Newstates of America for transmission to them a percentage equal to the loss
in efficiency from failure to comply.
shall be made by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs and approved by the
President; but the deduction shall not be less than 7 percent.
SECTION 11. When this
Constitution has been implemented the President may delete by proclamation
appropriate parts of this article.