VOLUME 264 JULY 1949
of The American Academy of Political
and Social Science
THORSTEN SELLIN, Editor
ERNEST MINOR PATTERSON, Ph.D.
Professor of Economics, University of Pennsylvania
President, The American Academy of
Political and Social Sciences
Copyright, 1949 by
The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences
All rights reserved
Peace by Pieces --
The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations
By Lyman C. White
It is only within our own lifetime that widespread and serious consideration has been given in the problem of how to create better international relations. During this time great efforts have been made to understand what causes war, and many proposals for the elimination of these causes have been advanced and strongly supported. These efforts have unfortunately contained a large element of error, since they have been based on a negative approach -- they have nearly always been concentrated on the causes of war.
It seems to me that we are too preoccupied by war -- our fear and our hatred of it keep us from realizing the true nature of peace and the means we must use to build it. Both our conscious and our unconscious attitudes are too often based on the fallacious idea that peace is the absence of war, and that what is needed is to abolish or control the causes of war. This idea does not contain the dynamic power necessary for success. It places us in a psychologically weak position -- the position of those who are "against" rather than "for", who appeal to fear rather than to courage, and who exhort us to hate evil rather than to do good.
It is not the vision of the horrors of war to which we must appeal. We know that men are courageous and that they will fight even under the most terrible circumstances if they think it necessary. Even the fear of hell itself has never kept men from sinning. These things being so, how futile it is for us to attempt to frighten men into peace! We should not go on talking about the "causes of war". It is high time for us to begin to consider the "causes of peace". Peace is real and solid and full of life, activity, and achievement. Peace includes the day-by-day work of dealing with the problems of human life, which have all become international. [Inter means 'to bury'. International means 'to bury the nations'.]
Common Interests And Peace
Our appeal must be to man's desire to achieve -- to the vision of men who are at peace with themselves and each other because they have found great common causes to which they can give their devotion; to the vision of a world where every man, woman, and child will be provided with all that he needs for the fullest possible development of his individual personality. [They decide what everybody needs. 'Needs' to them means "sufficient to sustain life- barely". Never mind the 'wants' to which a free individual may aspire.]
One way by which such peace can be achieved is through the promotion of the common interests of humanity, by organized international action. This method is already far advanced, for there are more than a thousand international organizations now in operation which are dealing with almost every conceivable subject of interest to mankind.
With rare exceptions, these organizations have all come into being during the past hundred years. This great movement has, indeed, developed so rapidly during recent decades that it is probably safe to say that the amount of organized international activity today is fully a hundred times greater than it was in 1910 and ten times greater now than in 1930.
There are now in operation a hundred intergovernmental organizations -- that is, organizations to which governments belong, such as the United Nations.
However, I want to discuss the role in world affairs of the nine hundred or more international nongovernmental organization. These bodies are composed of private or unofficial groups in different countries which have formed a joint organization to promote some common interest. A large proportion of the people of the world are connected with one or more of these organizations, for they include in their membership nearly all the large churches, trade unions, businessmen's associations, co-operative societies, farmers' groups, and women's organizations, as well as numerous professional, scientific, humanitarian, and social reform organizations. They deal with almost every possible subject from theology to the Olympic Games, from child welfare to astronomy, from cancer to the problems of labor, from aviation to women's rights.
The world owes much to those people of different nationalities who had the intelligence and vision to realize that they had interests in common, and who had the energy, the devotion, and the boldness to bring together the national organizations which they represented to form these international nongovernmental bodies. It is in these and in the intergovernmental organizations that world unity is daily being prepared. In certain instances one can say that it has even been fully achieved in the particular activities concerned. The Salvation Army and other international religious orders, for example, regulate the lives of their members in great detail. Organizations in the field of sport have achieved a remarkable degree of world unity for the limited area of life under their control, since they lay down and enforce the rules for international competition.
I would like to give a few examples of the work of the international nongovernmental organizations. The International Chamber of Commerce, composed of the leading associations of businessmen in the world, carries on many activities of which I will describe only one. It has set up an international court for the settlement of legal disputes between businessmen of different countries.
This court has handled over a thousand cases, at a cost of only 1.2 per cent of the amounts involved. In every case except one the decisions of this court have been carried out. In most cases the court has been able to settle the disputes by conciliation rather than by actual trial. This method of dealing with international disputes not only costs much less than taking a case to a national court, but it also avoids the bad feeling which would otherwise be developed.
The International Astronomical Union -- to go into a very different field -- coordinates the work of many observatories scattered throughout the world; this makes it possible to conduct scientific observations which could not be made within the borders of any one country.
The League of Red Cross Societies, through its international secretariat, its conferences, its publications, and the visits of its experts, has stimulated and aided its national member societies to establish and develop the peacetime services of the Red Cross. These services include such important activities as first-aid and home-nursing classes, health lectures, child welfare centers, training courses for nurses, antimalarial and antituberculosis dispensaries and sanatoria.
The organizations of a religious character have made converts, established national member societies, and strengthened the faith of believers; and have concerned themselves with many political, social, and humanitarian problems.
Influence on International Relations
Many international treaties are based on the work of international nongovernmental organizations or have been influenced by them. I can give only a few examples. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 constituted the first important actions of governments in the modern peace movement. An effort was made to limit armaments; declarations or conventions on the laws and customs of war were adopted; and the International Court of Arbitration was established.
Czar Nicholas II acknowledged that the idea of calling the first of these conferences was suggested to him by the work of the Inter-Parliamentary Union. The union was also largely responsible for the convocation of the second Hague Peace Conference.
The influence of another nongovernmental organization in this connection is indicated by Elihu Root's statement before the American Society of International Law: "I think it is not generally understood that the first conference at The Hague would have been a complete failure if it had not been for the accomplished work of the Institut de droi International."
Manley O. Hudson, writing some years ago in the American Journal of International Law, made the following statement regarding the International Maritime Committee:
"This is not an official body, but its work forms the basis of the deliberations of diplomatic conferences held at Brussels from time to time for the adoption of international legislation relating to the maritime law of peace. . . Their recent labors have produced four important conventions; relating to the Limitations of ship owners' liability, bills of lading, maritime liens and mortgages, and immunities of state-owned ships."
The formation of the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson was undoubtedly influenced by the resolutions of the 1915 Congress of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Francis Delaisi stated in his The Contradictions of the Modern World that
"the Dawes Plan was really the work of the International Chamber of Commerce".
He also said,
"In brief, what thirty-two diplomatic conferences with the help of countless meetings of ambassadors and interviews between heads of governments were unable to achieve, has been done by a private business organization".
There is considerable evidence that the chamber also had a great deal to do with the announcement of the Hoover moratorium of 1931 on the payment of war debts.
International nongovernmental organizations have done a great deal to improve relations between countries. It was in 1936 that President Eduard Beneli of Czechoslovakia told the Inter-Allied Federation of Ex-Service Men, "Your peace work is incomparably more effective than that of the diplomats". King Alexander of Yugoslavia said at about the same time that the World Alliance for International Friendship Through the Churches was responsible for the cessation of bad feeling between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and the resulting Pact of Friendship between the two nations.
The effect of the famous International boycott proclaimed against Hungary in 1920 by the International Federation of Trade Unions and the result of its action in organizing the refusal of workers to transport munitions to Poland during the war with Russia in the same year are well known.
Many of these organizations have played a great part in the establishment of intergovernmental organizations. An example of this is the International Association for Labor Legislation, which existed before the First World War and originated the ideas which were later put into the first International treaty on labor, the Franco-Italian treaty of 1904. It also prepared the way for the first international labor conventions of 1905, 1906, and 1913; and its work contributed greatly to the establishment of the International Labor Organization, which is now one of the most important specialized agencies of the United Nations.
A short hiatus for clarification as to who claims responsibility for the powerful Labor/Trade Unions, from their own publications.
"Jewish Contributions To Civilization -- An Estimate by Joseph Jacobs
Philadelphia - the Jewish Publication Society of America 5706 - 1945
Page 306 (excerpts): "Socialism was originated by Jews; and today Jews play a leading role in the spread and interpretation. And under the leadership of a Jew, trades unionism has been brought to its highest point of efficiency...
From the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia - 1943 -
page 28 (excerpts) "Individual revolutionary leaders of Jewish origin -- such as Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Sverdlov - played a conspicuous part in the revolution of November, 1917, which enabled the Bolsheviks to take possession of the state apparatus. ... It was the portion of the Jewish working class that came under the influence of Zionist ideology and was brought into the Zionist Movement. The segregation of the Labor Zionists within the general Zionist Movement began early in the 20th century and in the course of time, led to the founding of three so-called proletarian Zionist parties:..."
For further clarification: International Zionism IS the political program for World Dominion. It has nothing - and everything - to do with the Jewish religion. Most Jews are not aware of this. There is no 'religion' called Judaism. It is Talmudism, and mandates world destruction and world dominion by a chosen few.
Influence on National Life
A very significant contribution to national life all over the world has been made by international business, trade union, religious, and other organization, which have been influential in the creation of many hundreds of national organizations and have aided them in their work, encouraged them to take up new activities, and stimulated them into more vigorous actions.
To give only one example, the formation of the League of Red Cross Societies in 1919 and the consequent broadening of the program of the Red Cross to include the relief of suffering in peace as well as in war led to a more general acceptance of the Red Cross idea throughout the world, especially in South America. Owing to this as well as to direct encouragement, the number of national Red Cross Societies has increased by more than thirty since 1919. [The Red Cross emblem is exactly the same emblem used by the Knights Templars. Coincidence? Probably not.]
It is perhaps surprising to learn that international nongovernmental organizations have actually contributed to the creation of nations themselves, as in the case of both Italy and Germany.
In our own day we find an even better example. The independent state of Israel would surely never have been established in Palestine without the long-contained efforts of the World Zionist Organization, the Jewish Agency for Palestine, the World Jewish Congress, and many other Jewish organization.
[Have you ever put yourself in the place of the Palestinian Arabs who once lived where Israel is now? Think about it. A group of people - foreigners - come into your state (or county or city) with military backing; tell you that England and Israel gave them 'this land' and that you have to leave. Just leave. Everything except whatever you can carry, and if they want what you can carry you have to leave that behind, or get shot. You and your family leave your home which maybe sheltered several generations of your family. Where will you go? What do you feed the children? How do you shelter your family from the elements? That's what the U.S. and Britain did to the Palestinian Arabs when the UN declared Israel a Jewish State in 1948. Can't happen here in America? Don't count on it.]
International nongovernmental organizations have carried on independent of governmental action and with their own resources, activities of an extremely varied nature, of value to their members or to society at large. The exchange of knowledge, promoted or facilitated by these association, in itself constitutes a powerful instrument for man's advancement.
International nongovernmental organizations frequently reach agreements which regulate the relations among their national member groups or substitute for the different national methods or customs, a standard international terminology, custom, or method.
The International Chamber of Commerce has promoted the use of uniform bills of lading. The International Organization for Standardization promotes the acceptance of common standards through 69 special committees dealing with everything from screw threads to banking.
The Boy Scout and Girl Scout movements have spread common customs and ideals among the young people of many lands. These are but a few examples.
These associations build up the organization of interests on a world basis, and through them individuals become accustomed to thinking in terms of the world and can more readily accept and support the idea of co-operation among governments.
It may now be interesting to summarize the inherent characteristics of international nongovernmental organizations.
These organizations have the freedom to pioneer; they may criticize both governments and intergovernmental organizations, proposing action and demanding changes of policy; they are also relatively free from political considerations in working out and publishing scientific or other conclusions. In addition, they are able to meet needs which relatively few persons recognize, and which could not be met by official action for lack of public support or even because of public opposition.
[In their arrogance... we don't know what we 'need' but they do. Even if we don't want, and even oppose, what they say we need, we will get it through the efforts of NGOs via the International Nongovernmental United Nations Organization.]
They can bring together in friendly discussion individuals from unfriendly nations and thus pave the way for international conciliations. They can represent in international affairs the interests of particular groups of all kinds -- that is, functional or minority interests -- as well as the interests of the dominant groups. It is possible for them to work in a direct fashion either on or with individuals, and finally to represent in a more direct fashion, than governments can, the views of the various parts of organized public opinion.
A few words on the future of international nongovernmental organizations may be appropriate at this point.
If we assume the continued existence of our civilization, we may also assume that international nongovernmental organizations will continue to develop; for they arise out of that civilization and meet needs created by it. To enlarge upon this idea, let us say that the industrial revolution and the advance of science have destroyed the isolation of peoples and have provided the means by which they can work together in dealing with common interests. One aspect of this has been increasing specialization in knowledge and the resulting dependence of scientists and scholars on the thought of those of other lands.
Scientists clearly realize that cutting off the international exchange of information greatly reduces the progress of both the physical and the social sciences. This exchange of information is often most effectively carried on through international nongovernmental organizations. When social workers, chemists, or other specialists of different nations come together in conferences, they find the meetings stimulating and helpful; they are also greatly helped by the publications of these organizations, which bring to their attention the latest developments in many countries.
Another aspect of our civilization is democracy, and the future of international nongovernmental organization is intimately connected with democracy. It is an expression of democracy when groups from various nations work together in solving their common problems; this is particularly true when they try to influence intergovernmental organizations. They are then acting as national groups act within a democratic state. Thus the influence and the future of international nongovernmental organization is connected with the growth of democratic attitudes within states and also within intergovernmental organizations.
Relationship With UN
[Remember the 'difference' between the two. A nongovernmental organization is an organization that is not a government, nor part of a government.. An intergovernmental organization is an organization that isn't a government or part of a government, but which governments 'join'... like the UN... just another nongovernmental organization in truth. Notice how the author refers to the UN as an entity... "its aims" "its understanding", etc. and keep in mind as you read the following that "it" is a tool of the globalists behind which they hide in the illusion that the UN is a real organization of nations which leaders come together for the 'common good', the 'common interest'; and remember that today all national leaders are "puppet leaders" put in place by the architects of the UN. They erected and control the intergovernmental and any of the nongovernmental organizations that have a "voice" in the UN forums.]
I now come to a further development of the process of co-operation between nongovernmental organizations and intergovernmental organizations which grew up in the League of Nations, the International Labor Organization, and the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. This is the consultative relationship with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The United Nations is based upon common interests and the understanding that organized means are necessary for their promotion. Of particular importance are its economic and social aims, which as expressed in Article 55 of the Charter are:
The organ entrusted with the primary responsibility for carrying out these aims is the Economic and Social Council composed of eighteen members of the United Nations.
The importance of the contributions is to be made by nongovernmental organizations to the Council's work is recognized by the inclusion of Article 71, which reads as follows:
In accordance with this article, the Council adopted, on June 21, 1946, a report setting forth the purposes of consultation and the criteria of eligibility for consultative status.
The purposes are to secure expert information or advice, and to enable organizations which represent important elements of public opinion to express their views.
The main criteria of eligibility are concern with matters covered by the Council, and authentic representation of a substantial proportion of the organized persons in the field of interest of the organization.
The Council has so far conferred consultative status on eighty-three organizations, which are divided into three categories.
Category (a) in which there are nine organizations is defined as "organizations which have a basic interest in most of the activities of the Council, and are closely linked with the economic or social life of the areas which they represent."
[The footnote at the bottom of the page lists these nine organizations as: The World Federation of Trade Unions; the International Co-operative Alliance; the American Federation of Labor; the International Chamber of Commerce; the International Federation of Agricultural Producers; the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions; the Inter-Parliamentary Union; the International Organization of Employers; and the World Federation of United Nations Associations.]
Category (b) in which there are seventy organizations, is defined as "organizations which have a special competence but are concerned specifically with only a few of the fields of activity covered by the Council".
Category (c) in which there are four organizations, is defined as "organizations which are primarily concerned with the development of public opinion and with the dissemination of information. [Brain-washing the public by the dissemination of propaganda. These are probably associations of publishers, press, news media, etc.]
Some general facts about the organizations granted consultative status are:
1. They include in their membership nearly all the important trade unions, business and employers' organizations, co-operative societies, and farmers' organizations of the world. Leading associations of journalists, teachers, architects, women, and youth are also included.
2. Organizations representing a large part of the Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and Greek Orthodox faiths and peoples are included.
3. At least fifteen of the consultative organizations have over five million members, one alone representing 360,000,000 people.
4. The membership of other consultative organizations, although small, is composed of persons have a very special competence. These include, among others, members of national congresses or parliaments, leading statisticians, fiscal experts, international law and penal law experts, social welfare workers, authorities on housing and town planning and child welfare leaders.
5. The number of persons who directly participate in the international activities of these organizations is immense. One employs in its international secretariat some seven hundred persons. Recently, thirty-five thousand people from forty-two countries attended an international meeting called by one of the consultative organizations. [Keep in mind, this treatise was written in 1949. One would wonder who finances these gigantic meetings.)
Authorized representatives of consultative organizations, who are called "consultants", are given official recognition at the meetings of the Council and its commissions, such as the Commission on Human Rights or the Economic and Employment Commission. They are free to move about in the Council area or in the delegates' lounge, and to engage in private discussions with government representatives.
Organizations in category (a) may submit written statements expressing their views on any economic or social matter, and these communications are reproduced in full and distributed throughout the world as official documents. The organizations in the other two categories may also submit written statements, but these are issued in a summarized form.
When the consultants attend a commission, they may ask to speak. Thus they have frequently been able to present the views of their organizations at the very time when the matter in question arose. It is obvious that this opportunity is significant.
When a commission reports to the Council, the consultative organizations may express their views on the report, or on other matters before the Council, through the Council's Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations. This Committee is at the present time composed of the President of the Council and the representatives of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
[When they speak of "China" in 1949, they were referring to Taiwan, which was a member of the UN at that time. However, sometime in the 1970's Taiwan was literally kicked out of the UN because Communist China would not join unless Taiwan was ejected. This is never mentioned in UN reports, which leads people to believe Communist China has been a UN member from the outset. Taiwan was and is not a Communist nation. Does this tell us quite clearly the 'aim' of the United Nations Organization? We have a newspaper article written just before Hong Kong was "given" to Communist China by Great Britain. The article stated, "The people of Hong Kong are getting ready to greet their new masters.]
Such consultation is arranged if the Council so desires or the organization so requests. It is furthermore provided that the consultants should be able to participate fully in any consultations of this kind, so that the Committee may report to the Council on the basis of a full exchange of views. It is even provided that the Committee may recommend that the Council receive the consultants of organizations in category (a) for the purpose of hearing their views. the Committee has in fact done so, and the representatives of a number of organizations have thus appeared before plenary sessions of the Economic and Social Council.
Organizations in category (a) may submit items for the provisional agenda of the Council, and may defend these items before the Agenda Committee. If these items are accepted by the Council, their consultants may speak thereon to the Council or to a Committee of the Whole of the Council, depending on which is dealing with the matter.
Organizations in category (a) have also been granted the right to place items on the provisional agenda of the commissions.
During the eighth session of the Economic and Social Council which finished its work in march 1949, nine statements were made by the representatives of nongovernmental organizations in the Council, two in the Agenda Committee, and five to the Council's Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations -- a total of eighteen personal appearances dealing with such matters as forced labor, trade union rights, and equal pay for equal work for men and women workers. These subjects and several others came before the Council on the initiative of the organizations in category (a).
Through these consultative arrangements a strong link has been created between the United Nations and organized public opinion, which thus has an opportunity to contribute to the creation of a better life for all the peoples of the world.
In addition to the consultative arrangements with the Economic and Social Council, nongovernmental organizations may submit written communications on matters before the General Assembly, the security council, the the Trusteeship Council. These communications may be seen by any interested member of these organs of the United Nations. the Trusteeship council frequently examines petitions from nongovernmental organizations in trust territories which allege that the administering authority is not fulfilling its obligations.
The "Outgoing" Aspect
The foregoing may be considered as the "incoming" aspects of the relations of the United Nations with nongovernmental organizations. There is also the "outgoing" aspect, which is the informational work of the Department of Public Information of the United Nations Secretariat. The Department assists 250 international and over 1,050 national nongovernmental organizations to promote, all over the world, understanding of the aims and achievements of the United Nations. These organizations are supplied with documents, and their accredited observers, such as press and radio representatives, are given special facilities to enable them to learn what is going on.
The Department has called several important conferences of international nongovernmental organizations at Lake success and Geneva to stimulate their informational activities by the interchange of ideas and projects, to develop their relations with the Department, and to improve the services rendered to them.
The specialized agencies of the United nations, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); The International Labor Organization (ILO); and the World Health Organization (WHO), and other intergovernmental organizations such as the Organization of American States (OAS), each determine their own relationships with nongovernmental organizations. I cannot attempt to describe these relationships at this time. They are, however, extensive and of remarkable importance. [Yes, indeed, they are of extensive and remarkable importance. The "aim" of the OAS is to literally and physically merge the U.S. with Canada and South America... like the European Union. An American Parliamentary Government over all people in North and South America as a stop-gap to the giant World Government, the "aim" of the architects of the nongovernmental United Nations Organization. Would you like these sickos governing you? your children? grand or great grand children?]
What are the results of the work of nongovernmental organizations with the United Nations? In the first place, these organizations have carried on a tremendous educational program to inform their members of the principles and activities of the United Nations and thus to develop the popular support which is so necessary for its success.
In the second place, they have contributed numerous ideas and much information, which is highly valued by the members of the Secretariat who are working on international transport and communications, the removal of barriers to international trade, the prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders, problems of migration, and many other matters. Particularly noteworthy are the contributions of the organizations to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Genocide Convention, which without their support could hardly have come into being.
The economic and social documents of the United Nations contain an astonishing number of references to nongovernmental organizations. Further evidence will be available when the report on the contributions which the consultative organizations have made to the work of the Economic and Social Council is ready next November. Another publication which will throw light on the value of these organizations will be the Handbook of Consultative Non-Governmental Organizations which is now in course of preparation. This handbook will contain a careful description of consultative organizations, including such points as history, membership, structure, activities, and publications.
Teaching of International Relations
In the study of international relations we have thus far restricted ourselves largely to the study of relations between governments. Students of international affairs have traditionally been "officially" minded, that is, largely concerned with the relations between states or governments, their struggle for power, and their conflicts. The expression "the international mind" has, in fact, meant the "official international mind". The development of the "nongovernmental international mind", which leads one to think of the relations among groups of people of different nationalities and how they may promote their common interests, has been neglected.
We need to develop both the official and the non-official international mind. In this connection an interesting parallel can be drawn between the study of government and the study of international affairs.
Some decades ago, the political scientists were concerned with the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the government and their powers and duties. They "thought" that they were studying government. As time went on, it became evident to them that careful consideration of political parties is necessary for the understanding of government. Later still, they realized the great influence exerted by what the political scientists call "pressure groups", i.e. chambers of commerce, trade unions, churches, farmers' organizations, and other like bodies which exercise a tremendous influence on the course of legislation.
We all understand now that no government, no political party, nor indeed the life of any country where such groups operate, can be understood without careful study of their activities and influence.
In the study of international relations, however, we have so far restricted ourselves largely to the study of relations between governments. Surely the time has come for the students and teachers of international affairs to realize that international nongovernmental organization is a great unexplored continent in the world of international affairs and that expeditions should be sent in search of the great riches to be found there.
For it is there that one finds the most positive and constructive elements working for world unity. Most of the areas in the world of international relations may be called dark continents. At least exploration of them does not encourage great optimism about the future of mankind. The continent to which I draw your attention is, however, a bright and cheerful one where men and women of all races and with every kind of interest have somehow come together to work in common for things which they believe in. I should like to make the following concrete suggestions:
1. Teachers can help their students to become conscious of the fact that when they join any organization not of a strictly local character, either as students or later in life, they probably belong to a world organization which groups together people of many countries; and that they can, by working through these organization, contribute greatly to better international relations and the progress of humanity.
In almost every community such organizations as the Red Cross, the Lions Club, the Rotary Club, the Boy and Girl Scouts, the YMCA, the YWCA, the Chamber of Commerce, trade unions, the local co-operative society, and churches may be found. These organizations are the channels through which every citizen can enter and affect the main stream of international life.
2. Students should be informed that no matter what lifework they may choose, there is an international nongovernmental organization already working in that field which they can help and from which they can gain a great deal.
3. Young people who are interested in a career within the field of international relations should be aware that the nongovernmental organizations, as well as the intergovernmental organizations, offer great opportunities for the highly qualified.
4. A great deal of effort is being given to the promotion of the teaching of the principles and activities of the United Nations in our schools. This teaching, I am afraid, usually fails to inform the students of the relations between the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations and how through these organizations the individual can contribute to the success of the United Nations.
5. International relations clubs, study conferences, and model General Assemblies or, better yet, model Economic and Social Councils should not neglect the role of the nongovernmental organizations.
6. Many students visit Europe during the summer months. Could they not be put in touch with subjects of interest to them, in order either to attend their conferences or to visit their headquarters?
7. Graduate students writing masters' theses or doctors' dissertations on any subject in the field of international relations should be expected to take into consideration the influence of international nongovernmental organizations whenever that is appropriate. Graduate students should also become aware of the fact that there are many suitable subjects for theses or dissertations within the field of international nongovernmental organizations.
8. The writers of textbooks on international relations should endeavor to cover adequately the activities and achievements of the international nongovernmental organizations.
9. Some consideration is already being given, to international nongovernmental organizations by a few universities in their courses for graduate students. These examples should be more widely followed, and increasing attention should be given this subject. Perhaps some of the leading universities might pioneer by offering special courses in this field.
10. If these things were done, I think we might gradually build up appreciation of, and greater support for, the international nongovernmental organizations and thus help them in their efforts for human progress and the achievement of peace.
We have lived through some bitterly discouraging years, yet we may be proud and look forward with hope when we realize that in a few short years the machinery for dealing with almost every conceivable international common need on both the governmental and the nongovernmental level has been created. By looking for these common needs and devoting ourselves to their promotion we shall not only accomplish many useful services for the world and ourselves, but we shall also gain world unity and lasting peace. [Peace is total absence of resistance to their machinations. They would have us believe that.PEACE IS WAR. SLAVERY IS FREEDOM.]
The process is like that which occurs within nations by the creation and development of national organizations of every kind, each drawing its power from individuals or organizations scattered throughout the country. The importance of the interests organized on a sectional basis becomes almost insignificant compared with the importance of the interests organized on a national basis. Until this process is well developed, war is possible, even within territories under one government.
We would not have had a civil war in the United States if the railroads had run north and south as well as east and west, if trade between the North and the South had been better developed, and if the process of the organization of interests on a national basis rather than a sectional basis had been farther advanced. [We had a War of Northern Aggression (civil war), because the money-lenders instigated that war. The South Was Right!]
This is the process of peace by pieces on which we must rely to unify the world. In the words of David Mitrany in his "A Working Peace System";
Mitrany's principles are, in fact, being carried out through such functional services as those of the World Health Organization, the International Civil Aviation Organization, and other specialized agencies of the United Nations. Mitrany, however, confines his proposals to intergovernmental action. The need to "overlay political divisions with a spreading web of international activities and agencies" is perhaps just as important on the nongovernmental level, and may very likely be a necessary foundation for the type of intergovernmental action for which Mitrany argues.
One of the great topics of our day is "World Government: Pro and Con". I shall not express my views on this matter, but only point out that if a world government is ever established, it will be largely through the efforts of those international nongovernmental organizations which are now working toward that end with such great energy and enthusiasm; and that no matter what form of international co-operation we support, it is the international nongovernmental organizations that are bringing about the underlying community of organized interests without which no form of international co-operation can succeed.
Lyman C. White, Ph.D., Lake Success, New York, is secretary of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. He has been a student of these organizations since 1929 and is author of The Structure of Private International Organizations.